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Latin America Transformed by Robert N Gwynne download in iPad, pdf, ePub

They married Spanish women, ideally relatives of other encomenderos or of high local officials, if only to have legitimate heirs to inherit the encomienda. Here too the encomenderos were the greatest investors and mine owners in the beginning, but their dominance was short-lived. In this way the artisans were important in the gradual creation of an ever-growing African, indigenous, and mixed group in the cities, able to speak Spanish and practice the Spanish trades.

This text offers an holistic approach to understanding these changes, relating them to the wider processes of modernization and globalization. The expected secondary reaction was not long in coming, and fighting broke out in the capital. Indeed, these peoples and the Europeans tended to have more in common with each other than either had with other peoples indigenous to the Americas. The ecclesiastics who now began serious work with the indigenous people of the countryside operated within the framework of the encomienda and received their remuneration from it.

Finally, Warwick Murray and Eduardo Silva present a discussion of the political-economic and environmental dimensions of sustainability of natural resource use in Latin America. Another type of indigenous peoples may be called semisedentary. The most important entity for purposes of organization and affiliation was the city and the large territory attached to it. The Caribbean coast of the country, on the other hand, was once a British protectorate. Always depicted in black, he wears a black hat and sits on a chair, often with a cigar placed in his mouth and a gun in his hand, with offerings of tobacco, alcohol and Coca-Cola at his feet.

It is a compendium of Mayan stories and legends, aimed to preserve Mayan traditions. The marimba of Nicaragua is uniquely played by a sitting performer holding the instrument on his knees. The immigrants continued to come from all parts of Spain, constituting an even broader cross section than had the conquerors, for women were now a standard part of the stream.

But as members of a far-flung network that required high geographic mobility, they were at first less a part of local society. Women kept their maiden names after marriage, and the dowry given with them remained their own property. One large section of the indigenous American population, in fact the most numerous, based in Mesoamerica central and southern Mexico and Guatemala and the central Andes, was also sedentary.

Any such word refers to commonalities seen from the outside and not to any unity perceived by the inhabitants of the Americas themselves. In Mexico the bulk of the Spanish population concentrated in the area of highest indigenous population density, favouring contact, cultural change, and merging.

The city Santo Domingo became a type of entity that would reappear in every major area of Spanish occupation. Peru was much harder to reach from Spain, and travel within the country was extremely difficult. Now there were no limitations on the kinds of things introduced into the language, and change increasingly took place at the level of the individual, with mediation no longer necessary. Their foods were less attractive to Europeans, and in any case they had less surplus and were fewer in number.

Auxiliaries with European skills were needed to run mining operations and supervise the growing of European crops and livestock. The marimba is made with hardwood plates, placed over bamboo or metal tubes of varying lengths.

Peru was much harder to reachThe city Santo Domingo