Cradle to Grave by Larry Lankton download in iPad, pdf, ePub
They can then add the steps involved in their transport to plant and manufacture process to more easily produce their own cradle-to-gate values for their products. Life cycle improvement of industrial machineries and equipments including, manufacturing, power generation, transportations, etc.
However, the former one only could provide limited details and the latter one with more detailed information is more expensive. However, because of aspects like differing system boundaries, different statistical information, different product uses, etc.
Additionally the translation of economic quantities into environmental impacts is not validated. An earlier term for the approach was energy analysis. This is sometimes referred to as the boundary critique to systems thinking. Not every factor, however, can be reduced to a number and inserted into a model. For instance, for a family car, energy consumption could be used as the single stress factor to assess each phase of life.
Various methods, such as the avoided burden approach have been proposed to deal with the issues involved. All inputs and outputs are considered for all the phases of the life cycle. The model evaluates the impacts of fuel use using a well-to-wheel evaluation while a traditional cradle-to-grave approach is used to determine the impacts from the vehicle itself.
Energy Cannibalism refers to an effect where rapid growth of an entire energy-intensive industry creates a need for energy that uses or cannibalizes the energy of existing power plants. Thus during rapid growth the industry as a whole produces no energy because new energy is used to fuel the embodied energy of future power plants. Gate-to-gate modules may also later be linked in their appropriate production chain to form a complete cradle-to-gate evaluation.
Comparative life-cycle analysis is often used to determine a better process or product to use. The accuracy and availability of data can also contribute to inaccuracy.