Academic > Languages and Linguistics > Download, free read

Colloquial Gujarati by Jagdish Dave download in iPad, pdf, ePub

Inflected adjectives agree in case, gender and number with the nouns they qualify. The presumptive, subjunctive and contrafactual are considered an integral part of the tense system. Its correlative in the main clause is the distal demonstrative pronoun. Gujarati uses compound words formed by combination of adjectives and nouns i.

Modern Gujarati Oldest Document. The imperfective stem is formed by attaching the affix -t- to the verb root and the perfective one by adding -y- to it. Gujarati has short and long vowels but they are not contrastive. First, come the simple vowels, then the syllabic ones followed by the diphthongs e and o derive from ancient diphthongs and were considered so by the native grammarians.

Some nouns and adjectives

Some nouns and adjectives are inflected while others are invariable. The palatal stops are, in fact, affricates. Personal pronouns have inclusive and exclusive first person plural forms. Demonstrative pronouns distinguish proximal and distal degrees and have a plural polite form. They originate two stem types.

After these five groups, follow the semivowels liquids and glides also arranged according to their place of articulation. Then, the fricatives starting with the sibilants.

The oblique case is used for nouns accompanied by postpositions which serve as markers for other syntactical functions. The retroflex consonants of Gujarati, articulated immediately behind the alveolar crest, are not from Indo-European origin though present already in Sanskrit. Gujarati has, also, a retroflex liquid not inherited from Sanskrit. After the vowels come the stops and nasal consonants divided into five groups each of five letters according to their place of articulation from back to front.

The palatal stops

Only the imperative is considered an independent mood. The Gujarati spoken in Pakistan is very similar to Patani. Pronouns are declined in three cases to mark the subject, object or agent of a verbal construction. They are, probably, the result of Dravidian language influence. The nominative case is used for subject and direct object.